The Correlates of State Policy Project aims to compile, disseminate, and encourage the use of data relevant to U.S. state policy research, tracking policy differences across and change over time in the 50 states. We have gathered more than nine-hundred variables from various sources and assembled them into one large, useful dataset. We hope this Project will become a “one-stop shop” for academics, policy analysts, students, and researchers looking for variables germane to the study of state policies and politics.
In keeping with the mission of IPPSR, this Project documents, updates, and distributes various datasets germane to research on pressing public policy issues. IPPSR is committed to research transparency, replication, and data reliability. These cross-state and cross-time datasets are free and publicly available for academics, policy analysts, students, policymakers, and the research community. We welcome notification of any errors, comments, and contributions of additional datasets.
About the Datasets:
The Correlates of State Policy Project includes more than nine-hundred variables, with observations across the U.S. 50 states and time (1900 – 2016). These variables represent policy outputs or political, social, or economic factors that may influence policy differences across the states. The codebook includes the variable name, a short description of the variable, the variable time frame, a longer description of the variable, and the variable source(s) and notes.
This aggregated data set is only possible because many scholars and students have spent tireless hours creating, collecting, cleaning, and making data publicly available. Thus if you use the dataset, please cite the original data sources. For example, if you use the dataset to examine the relationship between the Policy Innovativeness Score created by Boehmke & Skinner (2012) and the Policy Liberalism Score created by Caughey & Warshaw (2015), you should include the following three citations:
- Boehmke, Frederick J., and Paul Skinner. 2012. “State Policy Innovativeness Revisited.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 12(3):303-29.
- Caughey, Devin, and Christopher Warshaw. 2015. “The Dynamics of State Policy Liberalism, 1936–2014.” American Journal of Political Science 60 (4): 899–913.
- Jordan, Marty P. and Matt Grossmann. 2017. The Correlates of State Policy Project v.2.1. East Lansing, MI: Institute for Public Policy and Social Research (IPPSR).
Data Downloads (Large Files) Version 2.1:
- Excel File with Separate Content Area Sheets
- Stata File with Complete Dataset
- CSV File with Complete Dataset
- Link to R Package
Data via Google Charts:
Variables Updated through 2016
State Ideology Data
• trap Targeted regulation of abortion providers (trap) laws
• aboldeapen Death penalty reform
• animcruel Animal cruelty felony laws
• anti_discrimination Anti-bullying program
• child_pornography State ban of child pornography
• comsrv12 Mandated community service after 1st or 2nd offense
• comsrvdy Mandated community service after 1st dui
• damagereduce Presence of a law that decreases monetary awards for injuries in law suits for seatbelt nonuse
• hate_crimes Does the state explicitly have hate crime legislation?
• hostliability Laws impose liability against hosts of underage drinking events
• juvct Juvenile court law
• mprisdm Mandates prison time for first dui
• preconvictdays Length license suspension for first dui, pre-conviction
• prisondayswag Mandatory days spent in prison for first dui
• retail_theft Retail theft law
• stalking does the state have anti-stalking legislation
• standground Post-2005 expansion of stand your ground laws
• victim_notification State system for notifying victims of crime
Drug and Alcohol
• dwi_reform State reform for driving intoxication limits
• goodsam911 Good Samaritan protection for reporting overdose
• keg_reg Required registration of beer keg purchases
• minfine Minimum fine for first dui
• sundayban Banning alcohol sales on Sundays
• universalprek Universal Pre-K education
• Cons_Fossil Fossil fuels, total consumption in billion btu
• Cons_Renewable Renewable energy consumption in billion btu
• bldstds_yearadopted Environmental building standards
• buildingcode Building code adoption
• corporaterenew_yearadopted Tax credits for renewable technologies
• ewaste State e-waste disposal programs
• netmeter_yearadopted Implement onsite renewable energy generation
• cartheftrate Number of reported car theft offenses per 100,000 population
• carthefttotal Total car thefts, per year, by state.
• murderrate Number of reported murder offenses per 100,000 population
• murdertotal Total homicides, per year, by state.
• propcrimerate Number of reported property crime offenses per 100,000 population
• propcrimetotal Total property crimes, per year, by state.
• raperate Number of reported rape offenses per 100,000 population
• rapetotal Total rapes, per year, by state.
• robrate Number of reported robbery offenses per 100,000 population
• vcrimerate Number of reported violent crime offenses per 100,000 population
• vcrimetotal Total violent crimes, per year, by state.
• elecdayreg Election day registration
• foia Open records/freedom of information acts
• gunbckcheck Number of background checks conducted on gun purchasers. Per year, by state.
• concealed_carry State permit for conceal and carry
• right2work Right to work legislation
Miscellaneous Regulatory Policies
• apology Physician apology protection laws
• engonly English only law
• revenue Strategic planning for revenue
• rps_yearadopted Renewable portfolio standard
• corporateeff_yearadopted Corporate incentives
• filmtaxcredit Film tax credits
• personaltax_yearadopted Residential tax credits for renewable energy systems
• personaltaxeff_yearadopted Residential tax credits for efficiency
• allpass_seatbelt Requiring all passengers to wear a seatbelt
• bikehelmet Requiring helmet for riding bike
• frontpass_seatbelt Requiring front passengers to wear seatbelts
• helmetlaw_17 Motorcyclists 17 and under required to wear a helmet
• helmetlaw_learn Those with instructional permits or license less than year old required to wear helmet on motorcycle
• helmetlaw_pass Helmet required for motorcycle passenger
• lemon Lemon laws
• opencont Prohibits open alcoholic containers in vehicles
• primaryenforce_all Police may pull over drivers for driving without seatbelt
• primaryenforce_minor Police may pull over drivers for minors riding without seatbelt
• zerotoleranceapis Law that establishes legal bac limit of .02 for underage drivers
• zerotolerancelaw Law that establishes legal bac for underage drivers lower than adult drivers
• Tuition_4Year Average tuition of pubic 4-year university for an in-state student
• Tuition_2Year Average tuition of pubic 3-year university for an in-state student
Welfare & Healthcare
• advertban Banning of cigarette advertising
• autism Requirement that insurance provide or offer some autism coverage
• barbanstate Full smoking ban in bars
• breastdensity Breast density notification acts
• continsurance Mandates contraception coverage by insurance
• infertility Requirement that insurance provide fertility services
• newbornheartscreen Coverage for newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease
• pubbenefits_yearadopted Collect public benefit fund
• restaurantbanstate Smoking ban in all restaurants in state
• worksitebanstate Smoking ban in all indoor workplaces
• antimis Anti- miscegenation laws
• breastfeed Allows public breastfeeding
• mothersaid Mothers' aid cash assistance program
• mothpen Mothers' pensions
• adoption_act__1953_1969Act regulating adoption requirements and standards
• adoption_act__1994 Act regulating adoption requirements and standards (1994 version)
• adult_guardianship_and_protective_proceedings_jurisdiction_act Mechanism for multi-state guardianship disputes
• alcoholism_and_intoxication_treatment Legal framework for public intoxication law
• anatomical_gift__1968 Sets framework for the donation of organs and other body parts
• anatomical_gift_act__1987 Framework for donation of organs other body parts (1987 version)
• anatomical_gift_act__2006 Framework for donation of organs other body parts (2006 version)
• antibully Anti-discrimination law (later updated in 1995 law)
• appointment_of_commissioners Creates commission on uniform state laws, and procedure to appoint commissioners
• arbitration_act__1956 Provides judicial facilitation of private dispute resolution
• arbitration_act__2000 Provides judicial facilitation of private dispute resolution
• article_1_of_the_uniform_business_organizations_code__uboc_hub__2011__last_amended_2013 Harmonizes the language of all of the uniform unincorporated entity acts
• assignment_of_rents_act Establishes a comprehensive statutory model for the creation, perfection, and enforcement of security interests in rents.
• athlete_agents_act_2015 Revision of previous law- expands definition of student and athlete
• athlete_agents_act Governs relations among student athletes, athlete agents, and educational institutions
• attendance_of_out_of_state_witnesses Provides states with statutory authority to secure the attendance of a witness from without the state in which the criminal proceeding or grand jury proceeding is pending.
• audio_visual_deposition Permit audio-visual means for taking depositions.
• business_organizations_code Creates statutory structure for organizing business and nonprofit entities
• certificate_of_title_for_vessels_act Regulating titles for vehicles
• certification_of_questions_of_law__1967 Empowers court to answer questions certified to it by a federal court, appellate, another state, or canada and mexico
• certification_of_questions_of_law__1995 Any jurisdiction's own courts should always rule upon a point of that jurisdiction's common law.
• child_abduction_prevention Provides states with tools to prevent child abduction
• child_custody_jurisdiction_and_enforcement_act Regulating child custody laws
• child_witness_testimony_by_alternative_methods_act Allows children witnesses to provide testimony by alternate methods
• class_actions Provides complete procedures to govern the conduct of a class action law suit.
• collaborative_law_act Regulates the use of collaborative law, a form of alternative dispute resolution.
• collateral_consequences_of_conviction_act Addresses the penalties and disqualifications that individuals face incidental to criminal sentencing.
• commercial_real_estate_receivership_act Provides a standard set of rules for courts to apply for real estate receivership
• common_interest_owners_bill_of_rights Governs the formation, management, and termination of common interest communities
• common_interest_ownership_act__1982 Governs the formation, management, and termination of common interest communities (1982 version)
• common_interest_ownership_act__1994 Governs the formation, management, and termination of common interest communities (1994 version)
• common_interest_ownership_act__2008 Governs the formation, management, and termination of common interest communities (2008 version)
• computer_information_transactions_act Contract law to regulate transactions in computer information products
• condominium_act Provisions for creation, management, and termination of condominium associations
• conflicts_of_laws_limitations_act Applying limitations periods chosen by conflict of laws
• conservation_easement_act Creation of permanent easements on real property for conservation and historic preservation purposes
• consumer_credit_code Provides standards for credit transactions entered into by individuals who purchase, use, maintain, and dispose of products and services.
• consumer_leases_act Assure that meaningful and accurate disclosure of lease terms is provided to consumers before entering into a contract
• consumer_sales_practices Crystallize the best elements of contemporary federal and state regulation of consumer sales practices
• controlled_substances_act Drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use and distribution of certain substances is regulated
• correction_or_clarification_of_defamation Timely request for a correction or clarification from the publisher of a defamation in order to maintain an action for defamation.
• custodial_trust_act Establishes a legal structure for organizing the ownership and management of property for its preservation on behalf of specified individuals
• debt_management_services__2011 Governing national administration of debt counseling and management in a fair and effective way. (2011 update)
• debt_management_services_act_2005 Governing national administration of debt counseling and management in a fair and effective way.
• deceptive_trade_practices_act__1964 Prohibit unfair or deceptive trade practices and unfair competition
• declaratory_judgments_act Authorizes courts to adjudicate actual controversies concerning legal rights and duties even though traditional remedies for damages or equitable relief are not available.
• deployed_parents_custody_and_visitation_act Addresses issues of child custody and visitation that arise when parents are deployed in military or other national service.
• determination_of_death_act Sets medial standards for determining death
• disclaimer_of_property_interests_act__1973 Allow every sort of disclaimer, including those that are useful for tax planning purposes.
• disclaimer_of_property_interests_act Allow every sort of disclaimer, including those that are useful for tax planning purposes.
• discovery_of_electronically_stored_information_rules_relating_to Rules for the discovery of electronic documents in civil cases.
• disposition_of_community_property_rights_at_death_act__1971 Preserves the rights of each spouse in property that was community property before the spouses moved to the non-community property state,
• division_of_income_for_tax_purposes Divides income between states for tax purposes when living/working in multiple states
• dormant_mineral_interests_act__model Ownership of real estate means ownership of interests and rights in an actual piece of geography.
• durable_power_of_attorney Establishes power of attorney for medical care and finances
• duties to persons with medical id devices Provide for a minimum level of duty toward persons in an unconscious state
• electronic_legal_material_act Establishes an outcomes-based, technology-neutral framework for providing online legal material with the same level of trustworthiness traditionally provided by publication in a law book
• electronic_recordation_of_custodial_interrogations Improve the fairness and professionalism associated with electronic recordings.
• electronic_transactions_act Establishes the legal equivalence of electronic records and signatures with paper writings and manually-signed signatures
• emergency_volunteer_health_practitioners Allows state governments during a declared emergency to give reciprocity to other states licenses on emergency service providers
• eminent_domain_code Regulating condemnation of property on behalf of private and public entities
• enforcement_of_foreign_judgments_act Provides a simplified way of enforcing judgments entered in another state,
• entity_transactions_act__model__2007__last_amended_2013 Allow conversion of one kind of business organization to another, or the merger of two or more business organizations into one organization
• environmental_covenants_act Provides clear rules for a perpetual real estate interest an environmental covenant to regulate the use of brownfields when real estate is transferred from one owner to another.
• estate_tax_apportionment_and_probate_code_3_916 Regulated apportionment of assets of the deceased
• exemptions_act__model Bankruptcy law
• extradition_and_rendition_act__model Provides two separate procedures to be used for the retrieval of wanted persons found in another state
• facsimile_signatures_of_public_officials Permits the use of facsimile signatures by public officials whose signature to a public security or instrument of payment is required or permitted.
• faithful_presidential_electors_act Require delegates in electoral college to vote in accordance with voters
• federal_lien_registration_act Allows federal tax liens to be filed in an office designated by the law of the state in which the property subject to the lien is situated.
• fiduciary_access_to_digital_assets_act__2014 Extends power of fiduciary
• fiduciary_access_to_digital_assets _act__revised__2015 Extends power of fiduciary- revision of 2014 law only passed by delaware
• foreign_money_claims_act Provides the rules for fair conversions of foreign money judgments into dollar amounts
• foreign_money_judgments_recognition_act Provides for enforcement of a state court judgment in another state to implement the full faith and credit clause of the u.s. constitution
• foreign_country_money_judgments_recognition_act Makes it clear that a judgment entitled to full faith and credit under the u.s. constitution is not enforceable under this act
• fraudulent_transfer_act__1984 Classifies a category of transfers as fraudulent to creditors and provides creditors with a remedy for such transfers
• guardianship_and_protective_proceedings_act__1997 Procedures on the appointment and guardians of conservators of minors
• health_care_decisions_act Provides right to refuse treatment
• health_care_information_act Provides for confidentiality of a patient's health care records
• information_practices_code Provides a uniform statutory approach to privacy and freedom of information.
• insanity_defense_and_post_trial_disposition Provides cognitive test for determining insanity
• insurable_interest_amendment_to_the_uniform_trust_code Address purchase of life insurance trusts
• interstate_depositions_and_discovery_act Provides simple procedures for courts in one state to issue subpoenas for out-of-state depositions
• interstate_enforcement_of_domestic_violence_protection_orders_act Gives law enforcement and the courts a means of either warning off victimizers by weight of the law or by getting them into custody before actual harm occurs.
• interstate_family_support_act__1992_1996 Regulates interstate child support
• interstate_family_support_act__2001 Regulates interstate child support (2001 version)
• interstate_family_support_act_amendments__2008 Regulates interstate child support (2008 version)
• intestacy__wills__and_donative_transfers_act Provides instruction on transfer of property at death
• land_sales_practices Regulation on promotional sale of land
• law_on_notarial_acts__revised Provide a consistent framework for notarial acts
• limited_cooperative_association_act__2007__last_amended_2013 Addresses the cooperative form of business.
• limited_liability_company__1995_1996 Permits the formation of limited liability companies,
• limited_liability_company__2006__last_amended_2013 Permits the formation of limited liability companies,
• limited_partnership__1976 Permits the formation of limited liability companies,
• limited_partnership_act__1916 Regulates business partnerships in the us
• limited_partnership_act__2001__last_amended_2013 Regulates business partnerships in the us
• management_of_institutional_funds_act Provides guidance on investment decisions and endowment expenditures
• management_of_public_employee_retirement_systems_act Provide legal rules that permit public employee retirement systems to invest their funds in the most productive and secure manner.
• mandatory_disposition_of_detainers Reestablishing rules for the prompt disposition of detainers
• marital_property_act Allows the family to be viewed as single economic unit
• marriage_and_divorce_act__model It minimizes the number of prohibited marriages, and includes the concept of no-fault divorce.
• mediation_act Establishes a privilege of confidentiality for mediators and participants.
• military_and_overseas_voters_act Simplifies absentee voting for military and civilians abroad
• minor_student_capacity_to_borrow_act__1969 Provides that a student loan is enforceable against debtor
• model_mandatory_disposition_of_detainers_act Establishing rules for the prompt disposition of detainers
• model_real_estate_time_share_act Covers creation, management, and termination of time shares
• model_state_administrative_procedure_act__1981 Provides procedures for promulgating administrative regulations
• money_services_act Provides a framework for dealing with money laundering issues unique to no depository providers of financial services
• multiple_person_accounts Encourages banks and credit unions to offer pod (pay on death) and agency (convenience) account forms for use by persons desiring some, but not all, incidents of joint accounts.
• nonprobate_transfers_on_death_act Allows owner to designate beneficiary to automatically receive property at death
• notarial_acts__1982 Simplifies rules for notarization
• parentage_act__1973 Law of determination of parentage, paternity actions and child support.
• parentage_act Law of determination of parentage, paternity actions and child support.
• partition_of_heirs_property_act Helps preserve family wealth passed to the next generation in the form of real property.
• partnership_act__1914 Helps make regulation of business partnerships uniform between states
• partnership_act __1997__last_amended_2013_ Helps make regulation of business partnerships uniform between states
• periodic_payment_of_judgments_act Pays damage awards over periods of time
• planned_community_act Comprehensive provisions for creating, managing, and terminating planned community developments.
• post_conviction_procedure_act__model Allows for convicted to petition for relief if rights violated
• power_of_attorney Provides for power of attorney
• powers_of_appointment Regulate power of appointment for estate planning
• premarital_agreement_act Allows for agreement between spouses made before marriage to be effective upon marriage
• premarital_and_marital_agreements_act Standardizes marital and pre-marital agreements
• prevention_of_and_remedies_for_human_trafficking Laws aiming to prevent human trafficking
• principal_and_income_act__1962 Provide procedures for trustees administering trusts and personal representatives administering estates in allocating assets to principal and income,
• principal_and_income_act__2000 Provide procedures for trustees administering trusts and personal representatives administering estates in allocating assets to principal and income,
• principal_and_income_amendments__2008 Provide procedures for trustees administering trusts and personal representatives administering estates in allocating assets to principal and income,
• probate_code_amendments__2008 Governs inheritance and decedents' estates
• probate_code Governs inheritance and decedents' estates
• protection_of_charitable_assets_act__model Articulate and confirm the role of the state attorney general in protecting charitable assets.
• prudent_investor_act Reflects a modern portfolio theory" and "total return" approach to the exercise of fiduciary investment discretion"
• prudent_management_of_institutional_funds_act Requires prudent and diverse investments of state funds
• real_estate_cooperative Provides comprehensive legislation governing the critical phases of cooperative development: creation, financing, management, and termination.
• real_property_electronic_recording_act Give county clerks and recorders the legal authority to prepare for electronic recording of real property instruments.
• real_property_transfer_on_death_act Allows for designated beneficiary to automatically receive property transfer at owner's death
• reciprocal_enforcement_of_support_act__1950 Facilitates interstate cooperation on collecting child support
• recognition_and_enforcement_of_canadian_domestic_violence_protection_orders Enforces canadian domestic violence orders
• recognition_of_substitute_decision_making_documents Allows substituting documents created in other jurisdictions
• registered_agents_act__model__2006__last_amended_2011 Provides states with one registration procedure for registered agents
• residential_landlord_and_tenant_act_1972 Codify best practices in leasing housing
• residential_mortgage_satisfaction_act Regulating mortgage holder rights
• revised_uniform_unclaimed_property_act Includes gift cards and other technological property in previous unclaimed property law
• rights_of_the_terminally_ill_act__1985 Rights for terminally ill legislation
• rules_of_evidence__1974 Simplify and codify the rules pertaining to what may be introduced in evidence in any civil or criminal trial in a court of law.
• securities_act __1956 Regulates offer and sale of securities
• securities_act __1988 Regulates offer and sale of securities
• securities_act Regulates offer and sale of securities
• simultaneous_death_act__1940 Regulates passage of assets if multiple people die within short period
• simultaneous_death_act Regulates passage of assets if multiple people die within short period
• status_of_children_of_assisted_conception_act Protects children born through assisted conception
• status_of_convicted_persons_act__1964 Defines rights of convicted people
• statutory_form_power_of_attorney_act Regulates power of attorney
• statutory_rule_against_perpetuities Regulated duration of ownership of property
• statutory_trust_entity_act Governs the use of statutory trusts as a mode of business organization.
• statutory_will_act__1984) Helps simplify wills
• testamentary_additions_to_trusts_act Modernizes trust and estate law
• tod_security_registration_act Provides non-probate transfer of specifically registered investment securities from owner to named beneficiaries at owner's death.
• trade_secrets_act Codify the common law with proper clarification of rights and remedies in relation to a trade secret
• transboundary_pollution_reciprocal_access_act Overcomes procedural obstacles that prevent a pollution victim in one state or province from seeking enforceable remedies in the state or province where the pollution originated.
• transfers_to_minors_act Allows a minor to receive gifts, such as money, patents, royalties, real estate and fine art, without the aid of a guardian or trustee.
• trust_code Provides a comprehensive model for codifying the law on trusts.
• trust_decanting Non-judicial method for modifying irrevocable trust
• trustees__powers_act__1964 Codifies trust laws
• ucc_article_1__general_provisions__2001 Provides definitions and general provisions which, in the absence of conflicting provisions,
• ucc_article_2a__leases__1987__1990 Provides states with a legal framework for any transaction, regardless of form, that creates a lease.
• ucc_article_3__negotiable_instruments__1990 Attempts to standardize negotiable instruments in states
• ucc_article_3__negotiable_instruments_and_article_4__bank_deposits__2002 Attempts to standardize negotiable instruments in states
• ucc_article_4a_amendments__2012 Amendments provide that article 4a does apply to a remittance transfer that is not an electronic funds transfer under the federal electronic funds transfer act
• ucc_article_4a__funds_transfers__1989 Includes electronic transfers in regulation of fund transfers
• ucc_article_5__letters_of_credit__1995 Regulates payment system
• ucc_article_6__repeal Repeal legislation of ucc article 6 (bulk sales law)
• ucc_article_6__revise Revise ucc article 6 (bulk sales law)
• ucc_article_6__bulk_sales__1989 Regulates payment system
• ucc_article_7__documents_of_title__2003 Regulates storage and shipment of tangible goods
• ucc_article_8__investment_securities Revises commercial codes, specifically transfers of securities
• ucc_article_8__investment_securities Governs transfer of investment securities
• ucc_article_9_amendments__2010 Provides the rules governing any transaction (other than a finance lease) that couples a debt with a creditor
• ucc_article_9_amendments Regulating secure transactions in personal property
• ucc_article_9__secured_transactions__1998 Provides a statutory framework that governs secured transactions--transactions which involve the granting of credit secured by personal property.
• unclaimed_property_act__1952_1981 Regulates abandonment of property
• unclaimed_property_act Regulates abandonment of property
• unincorporated_nonprofit_association_act__1992_1996 Governs all unincorporated nonprofit associations that are formed or operate in a state
• unincorporated_nonprofit_association_act__2008__last_amended_2011 Governs all unincorporated nonprofit associations that are formed or operate in a state
• unsworn_declarations_act Permit the use of unsworn declarations made under penalty of perjury in state courts
• unsworn_foreign_declarations_act__2008 Permit, in state court proceedings, unsworn declarations under penalty of perjury to be executed by witnesses physically located outside the united states in lieu of affidavits, verifications, or other sworn court filings.
• vendor_and_purchaser_risk_act__1935 Protect the purchaser of real estate where there is a binding contract of sale
• veterans_guardianship_act__1942 Regulates guardianship of incompetent veterans, and orphans of deceased veterans
• victims_of_crime_act__model Regulating satisfaction of losses suffered from victims of crime
• voidable_transactions_act_amendments__2014___formerly_fraudulent_transfer_act Strengthens creditor protections
• wills_recognition_act International convention calling for all countries and states to adopt a uniform formality for executing wills.
Additional Added Variables
All updates version 1.0 through 1.14 available as compiled list here (.pdf)
I. POLICY OUTPUTS
(policy liberalism; policy innovativeness; policy priorities; year of statehood; when states adopted policies on abortion, criminal justice, drugs and alcohol, education, environment, gambling, gay rights, governmental issues, gun control, immigration, labor rights, licensing, miscellaneous regulations, racial discrimination, taxes, transportation, welfare and health care, women’s rights, among others)
II. CRIMINAL JUSTICE
(motor vehicle theft rate and totals, property crime rate and totals, robbery crime rate and totals, murder crime rate and totals, violent crime rate and totals, gun background checks)
(state population, population density, population under 5 years old, population between 5 and 17 years old, population between 18 – 24 years old, population between 25 – 44 years old, population between 45 – 64 years old, population over 65 years old, population over 85 years old, female population, male population, religion, ethnicity, number of licensed drivers, abortion rate, divorce rate, birthrate, number of new immigrants receiving green cards, foreign born population, number of new refugees, political knowledge, social capital)
IV. ECONOMIC AND FISCAL
(personal income, disposable personal income, state minimum wage, per capital income, state consumer price index, regional / national consumer price index, housing price index, gross state product, total state debt, total state revenue, general state revenue, state tax revenue, total expenditures, fiscal year, legislative operating expenditures, legislative construction expenses, legislative capital expenditures, legislative equipment expenditures, legislative total expenditures, budget surplus estimates, total debt outstanding as percent of GDP, total revenue outstanding as percent of GDP, general revenue as percent of GDP, tax revenue as percent of GDP, total expenditures as percent of GDP, general expenditures as percent of GDP, budget surplus as percent of GDP, total debt outstanding as percent of personal income, total revenue as percent of personal income, general revenue as percent of personal income, tax revenue as percent of personal income, total expenditures as percent of personal income, general expenditures as percent of personal income, budget surplus as percent of personal income, percent change in real per capita income, state tax capacity, state tax effort index, regulatory freedom, economic freedom, fiscal freedom, personal freedom, overall freedom scores and rankings, gun control freedom, alcohol freedom, marijuana and salvia freedom, travel freedom, gambling freedom, civil liberties freedom, education freedom, asset-forfeiture freedom, victimless crime freedom, marriage freedom, campaign finance freedom, tobacco freedom, land-use freedom, labor market freedom, health insurance freedom, cable and telecommunications freedom, occupational licensing freedom, tort freedom, tax freedom, state assets, state liabilities, unfunded pension and other employee benefit liabilities, cash solvency index, long-run solvency index, budget solvency index, service level solvency index, trust fund solvency index, fiscal condition index, women’s earnings as a percentage of men’s earnings, value of agricultural sector, unemployment rate, tax revenue from corporations, number of patents, median household income, lottery ticket sales, lottery prize amounts, lottery administrative costs, income per capita, gross state product per capita, gross state product total, direct governmental farm payments, food stamp benefits, poverty rate, AFDC/TANF recepients, AFDC/TANF caseloads, foodstamps/SNAP recepients, foodstamps/SNAP caseloads, social service participation, welfare spending, number of business firms, number of bankruptcy filings, bond credit rating, among others)
(state education spending, percent of state population with a high school diploma, average school attendance rate, average daily school attendance rate, percent dropout rate, instruction expenses as percent of total education expenditures, instruction expenses per student, pupil to teacher ratio, total education expenses, total number of enrolled students, fourth grade math scores, fourth grade reading scores, among others)
(number of votes in general election, voting eligible population turnout rate, total population eligible to vote, number of felons ineligible to vote, state electoral competitiveness measures, proportion of state senate seats up for election, proportion of state house seats up for election, proportion of democratic state senators, proportion of two-party vote for Democratic gubernatorial candidate, party control of state government, Ranney measures of electoral competitiveness, average winning percent and margins by winning candidate, percent of "safe" seats, Holbrook and Van Dunk measures of electoral competitiveness, Shufeldt and Flavin's measures of electoral competitiveness, election contributions, campaign finance regulation, among others)
VII. ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
(commercial sector energy consumption, commercial sector energy consumption per capita, residential sector energy price, total CO2 emissions from fossil fuels, among others)
VIII. GOVERNMENT (GOVERNOR, LEGISLATURE, STATE HIGH COURT)
(government employment, charecteristics of state constitutions, election years, governor names, gubernatorial changes, prior public service of governor, state term limits, female governor, female lieutenant governor, female secretry of state, female attorney general, females in legislature, latinos in legislature, party of the governor, lame duck governor, midterm penalty, open seat, number of local governments, state house ideological median, state senate ideological median, state House Democratic Party ideological median, state House Republican Party ideological median, state Senate Democratic Party ideological median, state Senate Republican Party ideological median, distance between party medians in state House, distance between party medians in state Senate, average ideological distance between any two members in state House, average ideological distance between any two members in state Senate, Democratic Party heterogeneity in State House, Democratic Party heterogeneity in state Senate, Republican Party heterogeneity in State House, Republican Party heterogeneity in state Senate, chamber ideological heterogeneity, state legislative professionalism, percent of state legislators that are female, ADA/COPE measure of state government ideology, Nominate measure of state government ideology, state high court professionalism, corruption, among others)
(total state population with government insurance, total state population without government insurance, total population with private health insurance, health spending per capita, infant mortality rate, medicaid enrollment and spending, among others)
X. INTEREST GROUP
(state interest group density, number of state education interest groups, number of agriculture and fisheries interest groups, number of banking and real-estate interest groups, number of insurance interest groups, number of manufacturing interest groups, number of construction and housing interest groups, number of legal and courts interest groups, number of small business and retail interest groups, number of health care interest groups, number of civil rights and minority issue interest groups, number of hotel and restaurant interest groups, number of environmental protection interest groups, number of churches and religious organizations, number of welfare interest groups, number of commercial resource development interest groups, number of good governance interest groups, number of women's issues interest groups, number of utilities and energy interest groups, number of tax and government regulations interest groups, number of media and communication interest groups, number of transportation and transit interest groups, number of intergovernmental relations interest groups, number of police and fire interest groups, number of sports and entertainment interest groups, number of service firms interest groups, number of military and veterans interest groups, number of unclassified interest groups, union density, among others)
XIII. PUBLIC OPINION, PARTISANSHIP, IDEOLOGY
(Berry et al. citizen ideology measure; Erickson, Wright and McIver (EWM) party identification score, EWM weighted state ideology score, EWM state party identification score, EWM state ideology score, Stimson’s policy mood, big five personality traits, public policy approval, among others)
Jordan, Marty P. and Matt Grossmann. 2017. The Correlates of State Policy Project v.2.1. East Lansing, MI: Institute for Public Policy and Social Research (IPPSR).
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